22 April 2019 – On Saturday 20 April, Bahrain’s King Hamad bin Isa AlKhalifa issued an order reinstating the citizenship of 551 people beforehand stripped of their Bahraini citizenship via legal convictions. Since 2012, the Bahraini authorities has denationalized 990 individuals, which means that the standing of 439 persons born with Bahraini citizenship stays unknown. This order does not apply to those people who have had their citizenship revoked by royal decree or ministerial order, solely to those who have been denationalized by way of a courtroom order. People for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB) acknowledges the reinstatement of citizenship for 551 individuals, however we strongly condemn the arbitrary nature of the order and we call upon the Bahraini government to right away reinstate the citizenship of all those who have been denationalized and to compensate them for his or her loss of attending privileges.
Article 17 of Bahrain’s Constitution establishes that citizenship in Bahrain “shall be defined by the law, and no person enjoying citizenship by origin may be deprived of it except in cases of high treason and in other conditions specified by the law.” Article 4 of the Citizenship Act of 1963 established that an individual might only be disadvantaged of their citizenship if they enter the army service of a overseas country, help or interact in service of an enemy country, or cause hurt to the security of the State. Nevertheless, in 2014, the federal government amended the Citizenship Act, changing “causes harm to the security of the State” to incorporate revocation of citizenship if an individual “causes damage to the interests of the Kingdom and if he committed a disloyal action against the Kingdom.” This would come with a conviction for terrorist acts falling underneath Regulation 58 of 2006.
Revocation of citizenship could be carried out by means of an administrative course of – by a choice of the Ministry of Inside (MoI), both by itself initiative or by way of an order by the King subsequently ratified by the parliament – or via courtroom proceedings. Both felony courtroom selections and selections by royal decree are subject to attraction and the king can restore an individual’s nationality. If the deprivation is judicial, then the person can attraction via the standard legal course of – the sentence and judgment are appealed to the Excessive Courtroom or Courtroom of Cassation collectively. If the revocation is administrative, then the person must attraction by way of the Ministry which instituted the order stripping citizenship.
The use of counter-terror laws as grounds for the revocation of citizenship is particularly concerning in Bahrain, where the laws governing counter-terrorism are obscure and overly broad. In some instances they primarily criminalize constitutionally- and internationally-protected rights of free expression and assembly. Moreover, amendments to the counter-terror regulation in 2013 and 2014 additional restricted these rights and circumvented ensures of due process. They banned peaceable assembly in Manama, increased the penalties for terror offenses, and extended pre-trial detention durations for terror suspects. The 2013 modification particularly allows courts to revoke the citizenship of people convicted of terror crimes, while its 2014 counterpart launched a separate terror prosecution office, which permits suspects to be held for six months without trial. These provisions have resulted in a development of mass trials through which lots of of Bahrainis have been convicted and denationalized following trials which fail to satisfy worldwide standards.
In Might 2018, the High Felony Courtroom convicted and denationalized 115 people within the case of the “Zulfiqar Brigades,” a trial which triggered United Nations specialists to precise “grave concern” at allegations of torture, coerced confessions, enforced disappearances, and truthful trial rights violations towards these individuals. Despite these considerations, on 16 April 2019, the Fourth Excessive Felony Courtroom convicted 139 defendants and denationalized all but one within the case of the “Bahraini Hezbollah.” In response, the United Nations Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet issued a press release expressing her considerations about this case, commenting “Deprivation of nationality must not be arbitrary . . . Arbitrary deprivation of nationality places the individuals concerned and their family members in a situation of increased vulnerability to human rights violations.” It is unclear whether or not defendants in either the Zulfiqar Brigades or Bahraini Hezbollah case are among these whose nationalities have been restored. It is further unclear whether any legal convictions might be impacted by this choice.
These legislative steps are the end result of centralization of power within the arms of Bahrain’s ruling family. This course of has led to the sidelining of the decrease home of parliament, dissolution of opposition political societies, jailing of opposition political activists, and widespread suppression of dissent. It has additionally included the weaponization of citizenship whereby the attending rights and privileges of being a Bahraini citizen might be revoked with the stroke of a pen by the king, a minister, or the judiciary, which is intently tied to the federal government and ruling family.
Since 2012, the Bahraini government has revoked the citizenship of 990 Bahrainis, some of whom have been denationalized by royal or ministerial decree. These individuals didn’t receive a trial, could not current proof of their protection, and have restricted opportunities to attraction the decision. This arbitrary use of energy is predicated upon deeply flawed laws. It’s also the product of an unjust system that over 100,000 Bahrainis protested once they took to the streets on 14 February 2011. They referred to as for larger accountability, constancy to the rule of regulation, and respect for human rights. Additionally they requested an end to impunity for crimes and abuses committed by the federal government the creation of establishments that help and bolster the rule of regulation. Regardless of the peaceable demonstrations, the government violently crushed the demonstrations, declaring martial regulation, killing dozens of protesters, and later passing restrictive laws normalizing points of martial regulation. Despite the abuses dedicated by the safety forces, virtually none have been held accountable for his or her actions, with some as an alternative promoted, like Mubarak bin Huwail.
Husain Abdulla, Government Director of ADHRB: “The king’s decision to reinstate the citizenship of 551 individuals previously denationalized demonstrates the importance of continued advocacy addressing the widespread and systematic human rights violations in Bahrain. However, we are deeply concerned over the arbitrary nature of the decision. These individuals were denationalized on spurious grounds following convictions in unfair mass trials. That the king can give them back their citizenship with a stroke of his pen only serves to demonstrate the extra-legal nature of the process. The singular ability of the king or a minister to revoke a Bahraini’s citizenship with a stroke of the pen and restore it with a stroke of the pen directly contradicts what tens of thousands of Bahrainis protested for and called for in 2011 – accountability, rule of law, and respect for international human rights standards.”
Bahrain’s use of counter-terror legal guidelines and denationalization are in contravention of a quantity of worldwide authorized rules, including the appropriate to nationality, as enshrined in Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that “no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality.” People who’re denationalized in Bahrain fall beneath the same legal status as “foreigners” in Bahraini regulation and are denied the essential rights of citizens. Additional, if a person is stripped of Bahraini nationality and holds no secondary citizenship, that particular person can be rendered stateless and in danger for a quantity of human rights violations, together with loss of entry to providers, loss of the correct to travel, and an incapability to cross Bahraini citizenship to any subsequent youngsters. Each stateless and “foreign” people don’t take pleasure in access to many social providers together with healthcare and housing, in violation of Bahrain’s obligations beneath the Worldwide Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.
ADHRB is deeply involved over the Bahraini authorities’s ongoing weaponization of citizenship, particularly the king or a minister’s capacity to revoke citizenship and strip an individual of their rights and privileges as a Bahraini, and then restore it right away. This disregard for the rules of the rule of regulation contravenes the hopes and goals of tens of hundreds of Bahrainis who marched in 2011 for higher respect for human rights, accountability, and an end to the imperial powers of the king and ruling family. While we recognize that 551 individuals have had their citizenship restored, the government shouldn’t have stripped it away within the first place. Furthermore, the standing of 439 individuals born with Bahraini citizenship stays unknown. ADHRB calls on the Bahraini authorities to reinstate the citizenship of everybody who has had their citizenship revoked and to compensate them for their loss of citizenship privileges and rights. We further name on the authorities to re-examine the conviction of these people in unfair trials based mostly on impermissibly broad and discriminatory laws. We moreover name on the government to launch all political prisoners and to hold officers in all ministries accountable for his or her rights abuses, particularly officers in the Ministry of Inside.